Recognizing the OLLs
These are the 57 orientation cases for the last layer and how I recognize them. In general, you should first look at the top face to identify the type of case you have. Then identify the specific case by looking at stickers on the side faces.Corners Correct, Edges Flipped
These are easy to recognize because all four corners are correctly oriented. To distinguish between cases, simply check to see whether all four edges need to be flipped, or if only two need to be flipped, check to see whether they are opposite or adjacent of each other.
#  Diagram  Comments 
28  All corners are oriented but two adjacent edges are flipped.  
57  All corners are oriented but two opposite edges are flipped.  
20  All corners are oriented but all four edges are flipped. 
All Edges Flipped Correctly
Recognition for these cases is extremely easy because they each have a yellow "cross" already solved. If three corners need to be twisted, check to see if you have Sune or Antisune. If two corners are twisted, you can tell which case is given by seeing only one of them. This set of cases is perhaps (along with the previous three cases) the easiest set to recognize and distinguish. I use some COLL cases, which orients AND permutes the corners, so 1/12 of the time you will be left with a solved cube and the other 11/12 of the time you will be left with an easy (fast) cycle of edges.
#  Diagram  Comments 
23  All four edges are oriented correctly and only two corners need to be twisted. The two corners that need to be oriented have yellow stickers facing the same direction. You can also recognize that the left and right faces do not have any yellow stickers.  
24  All four edges are oriented correctly and only two corners need to be twisted. The two corners that need to be oriented have yellow stickers facing opposite directions. Therefore, only one yellow sticker is visible on each of the front and back faces. You can also recognize that the right face does not have any yellow stickers.  
25  All four edges are oriented correctly and only two corners need to be twisted. The two corners that need to be oriented are diagonal from each other.  
27  All four edges are oriented correctly and three corners need to be twisted. On each face that has a yellow sticker, the sticker is lined up with the right corner.  
26  All four edges are oriented correctly and three corners need to be twisted. On each face that has a yellow sticker, the sticker is lined up with the left corner.  
22  All four edges are oriented correctly and all four corners need to be twisted. On the front and back faces, only one corner needs to be oriented.  
21  All four edges are oriented correctly and all four corners need to be twisted. On each face, either no or two yellow stickers are visible. 
No Edges Flipped Correctly
There are four types of cases here. If nothing on the top is yellow except the center, bring the yellow bar of 3 stickers to the left side and perform the algorithm. If there is only one corner yellow dot on the upper face, bring it to the right and put the yellow bar on the right face and choose your algorithm based on whether the dot is in the front or the back. If there are two corner dots on the upper face, check to see whether there is a bar of three stickers on one of the sides. If there is, put that bar on the back face. Otherwise, bring the two dots to the back of the cube and perform the algorithm.If there are three dots on the top of the cube (a diagonal), AUF so that the diagonal matches the diagram below and so that there is only a single yellow sticker on the front face. Technically the "X" pattern can be considered to be one of these cases, but I categorized the "X" pattern with the Corners Correct cases.
#  Diagram  Comments 
3  When the oriented corner is in the front right position, there are also two stickers visible on the right face.  
4  When the oriented corner is in the back right position, there are also two stickers visible on the right face.  
17  This is the only case with this diagonal pattern on the top face.  
19  The side opposite the two oriented corners has only one yellow sticker. The two sides adjacent to that one each have two yellow stickers.  
18  The side opposite the two oriented corners has three yellow stickers. The two sides adjacent to that one each only one yellow sticker.  
2  This case has only one yellow dot on the top face. There are two faces that have exactly two yellow stickers.  
1  This case has only one yellow dot on the top face. Each face has either one or three yellow stickers. 
"T" shapes
Distinguish among the T's by the number of yellow stickers on the front face.
#  Diagram  Comments 
33  The front and back faces have two yellow stickers. The left face has no yellow stickers.  
45  The front and back faces have only one yellow sticker. The left face has two yellow stickers. 
"P" Shapes
Distinguish among the b's and d's by looking at the side opposite the solved letter and checking to see whether there is one or three yellow stickers. If there is only a dot on the side instead of the bar, put the dot on the left.
#  Diagram  Comments 
44  This makes a "d" or "p" shape and there are three stickers opposite the letter.  
43  This makes a "b" or "q" shape and there are three stickers opposite the letter.  
32  This makes a "d" or "p" shape and there is only one sticker opposite the letter.  
31  This makes a "b" or "q" shape and there is only one sticker opposite the letter. 
"W" Shapes
The upper face should show an "M" and there will be only one sticker on the front face when you start the algorithm.
#  Diagram  Comments 
38  When the bar of two yellow stickers is on the right face, this shape makes an M.  
36  When the bar of two yellow stickers is on the left face, this shape makes an M. When the bar of two yellow stickers is on the right face, this shape makes a W. 
"L" shapes
If there is a bar of three yellow stickers on any side, bring that bar to the left side of the cube. Then, based on the number of stickers on the side opposite the little L (front or back), decide which case you have. If there is no bar of three yellow stickers, put the bar of two yellow stickers in the front of the cube and perform the appropriate algorithm.
#  Diagram  Comments 
54  The L is in the back and there is
only one yellow dot in the front. 

53  The L is in the front and there is only one yellow dot in the back.  
50  The L is in the front and there are two yellow stickers in the back.  
49  The L is in the back and there are two yellow stickers in the front.  
48  With the two yellow in the front,
the two stickers are on the right and the L is on the left. 

47  With the two yellow in the front, the two stickers are on the left and the L is on the right. 
Big Lightning Bolts
AUF so that the left and right edges are oriented and so that there are two yellow stickers on the back of the cube.
#  Diagram  Comments 
39  The two yellow stickers are in the
back and the big lightning bolt is at the front left. 

40  The two yellow stickers are in the back and the big lightning bolt is at the front right. 
"C" Shapes
Decide on the algorithm based on whether the side opposite the "C" has one or three yellow stickers.
#  Diagram  Comments 
34  The face opposite the "C" has only
one yellow sticker on it. 

46  The face opposite the "C" has only three yellow stickers on it. 
Squares
Bring the square to the right of the cube and make sure there is no dot next to the square in the front or back of the cube. One case has a yellow sticker in the front and the other does not.
#  Diagram  Comments 
5  With the square at the front right, there are no stickers on the front face and there is a sticker on the right face.  
6  With the square at the back right, there are no stickers on the back face and there is a sticker on the right face. 
Small Lightning Bolts
If the corner trapped within the lightning bolt faces the same direction as just one edge, bright it to the leftmost position in the front or back of the cube. If the yellow sticker instead faces the face that has two solved pieces, front those two pieces to the front of the cube and perform the appropriate algorithm.
#  Diagram  Comments 
7  When the lightning bolt is lined up
vertically on the left, there is a yellow sticker trapped inside the
lightning bolt on the back face. 

12  When the lightning bolt is lined up
horizontally with the bolt at the front, there is a yellow sticker on
the front face. When the lightning bolt is lined up
horizontally with the bolt at the back, there is a yellow sticker on
the back face. 

8  When the lightning bolt is lined up vertically on the left, there is a yellow sticker trapped inside the lightning bolt on the front face.  
11  When the lightning bolt is lined up horizontally with the bolt at the front, there is a yellow sticker on the front face. When the lightning bolt is lined up horizontally with the bolt at the back, there is a yellow sticker on the back face. 
Fish Shapes
For these cases, distinguish among them based on whether the square has a hole in it or not. If there is a solid box, check to see whether you have one or two dots on each of the sides. If there is a hole in the box, put the dot on the right so that the bar is either in the front or the back.
#  Diagram  Comments 
37  The two faces opposite the square
each have two yellow stickers on them. 

35  The two faces opposite the square each have only one yellow sticker on them.  
10  When the dot is at the back right,
there are two stickers on the back face. 

9  When the dot is at the front right, there are two stickers on the front face. 
"I" Shapes
If there is a bar of three stickers, place it on the right side of the cube. If there is a second bar of three stickers, then you know which case you have immediately. If there is no bar of three stickers, then there is either a bar of two stickers or no bar of stickers at all.
#  Diagram  Comments 
51  The two faces that line up with the
I each have exactly two adjacent yellow stickers. 

52  One of two faces that lines up with the I has a bar of three yellow stickers while the opposite face has only one yellow sticker..  
56  The two faces that line up with the I each have exactly one yellow stickers.  
55  The two faces that line up with the I each have a bar of three yellow stickers. 
"Knight Move" Shapes
First check to see if the bar opposite the oriented corner lines up with it. If it does, put the oriented corner in the back. Otherwise, bring the oriented corner to the front and check to see which side the oriented corner is on.
#  Diagram  Comments 
13  With the dot at the back right, the two yellow stickers are at the front right. Also, with the dot at the front left, there are two yellow stickers on the front face.  
16  With the dot at the back right, the
two yellow stickers are at the front left. 

14  With the dot at the back left, the two yellow stickers are at the front left. Also, with the dot at the front right, there are two yellow stickers on the front face.  
15  With the dot at the back left, the two yellow stickers are at the front right. 
The "Awkward" Shapes
Line up the lightning bolt vertically so that the dot is at the back of the cube and just check which side the bolt is on and whether there is a yellow sticker facing the front of the cube where the corner trapped in front of the bolt is.
#  Diagram  Comments 
41  With the lightning bolt on the
right, the front right sticker is yellow. 

30  With the lightning bolt on the right, the front right sticker is not yellow.  
42  With the lightning bolt on the left, the front left sticker is yellow.  
29  With the lightning bolt on the left, the front left sticker is not yellow. 